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Furthermore the standard sets limits of obtrusive light for exterior lighting installations which are based on publication CIE Lighting levels are given in terms of average maintained illuminances of task and surrounding areas.

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In terms of energy efficiency this standard offers for the first time the possibility for the application of adaptive lighting as for a number of tasks the requirements are dependent on risk, duration, or passenger volume. For the calculation of illuminances and uniformities the maximum grid cell sizes can be evaluated using a formula which takes into account the actual dimensions of the area under consideration.

In a comprehensive table requirements are given for the exterior lighting of railways and tramways.

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For the lighting of open and covered platforms the lighting requirements are specified dependent on the type of train services and on the number of passengers [1] which offers the possibility to introduce adaptive lighting systems [2].

The standard specifies lighting requirements for outdoor work places which meet the needs for visual comfort and performance; they do not specify lighting requirements with respect to safety and health of workers at work, although the lighting requirements as specified usually fulfil these safety needs.

The main parameters determining the luminous environment are the luminance distribution, the illuminance level and uniformity, the limitation of glare, the directionality of light modellingthe colour appearance and colour rendering, and the degree of flicker [1].

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The luminance distribution in the field of view controls the adaptation level of the eyes. A well balanced luminance distribution sudden changes should be avoided is needed to increase the visual acuity, the contrast sensitivity, and the efficiency of the ocular functions.

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The illuminance and its distribution on task and surrounding area have a great impact on how quickly, safely, and comfortably a person perceives and carries out a visual task. The illuminance values specified in the standard [1] are maintained illuminances over the task area on the reference surface, which may be horizontal, vertical or inclined.

The task area is defined as the partial area in the work place in which the visual task is carried out. The maintained illuminance of the surrounding area shall be related to the maintained illuminance of the task area and should provide a well-balanced luminance distribution in the field of view. The surrounding area is regarded as a strip surrounding the task area in the field of view.

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The width of this strip should be at least 2 m, but this is usually of no importance for railway or tramway lighting. For the calculation and verification of illuminance values minimum, average, maximum a grid system has to be used which is based on a formula giving the maximum grid cell size dependent on the area dimensions. The colour qualities of near-white lamps are characterised by the colour appearance of the lamp warm, intermediate, cool and the colour rendering capabilities expressed in terms of the general colour rendering index Ra.

This methodology is the same as used for the lighting of indoor work places [5].

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For the recognition of safety colours the light sources shall have a minimum colour rendering index of 20; for specific tasks, areas or activities including railways and tramways minimum general colour rendering indices are given in the schedule of lighting requirements [1]. To highlight objects, to reveal textures or to improve the appearance of people modellingdirectional lighting may be suitable.

Modelling is the term used to describe the balance between diffuse and directional light; too directional lighting will produce harsh shadows.

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Lighting from specific directions may reveal details within a visual tasks, increase their visibility and making the task easier to perform. Unfortunately there are no measures given in the standard [1], only verbal descriptions.

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For a given observer position and a given viewing direction 2º below the horizontal the degree of glare is dependent on the equivalent veiling luminance produced by the luminaires and the equivalent veiling luminance produced by the environment in eco smart eficacitate pass of the observer. The veiling luminance caused by the lighting installation is calculated according to the Holloday formula.

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The veiling luminance of the environment is approximated; i. If no particular observer positions and viewing directions are specified, the glare rating should be computed at the illuminance grid positions at 45º intervals radially about the grid points with the 0º direction parallel to the long axis of the task area [1]. If the situation of a train driver e.

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The time after which stricter requirements for the control of obtrusive light will apply, often a condition of use of lighting applied by a government controlling authority, e.

To safeguard and enhance the night time environment it is necessary to control obtrusive light which can present physiological and ecological problems to surroundings and people.

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To evaluate the effects of obtrusive light from outdoor lighting installations the methods described in CIE Publication [8] have been included in the standard [1] for the lighting of outdoor work places. For the different environmental zones E1 to E4, i. Furthermore the maximum values of threshold increments for users of nearby roads are considered.

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Railway stations are located in all of eco smart eficacitate pass different environmental zones E1 to E4. Using luminaires for direct illumination at relatively low mounting heights and no high pole lighting will not cause problems in terms of vertical illuminances încurajarea cuvintelor pierdere în greutate buildings, of luminous intensities in potentially obtrusive directions, and of the proportion of the luminous flux emitted above the horizontal.

The possible reduction of light levels dependent on passenger volume [1][2] - sometimes even switching off during hours of guaranteed non-operation of trains - is a further measure to reduce light pollution particularly in dark natural zone E1 or low brightness rural zone E2 areas.

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Application of energy efficient lighting systems using lamps with higher efficacy, ballasts with lower losses, and luminaires providing higher utilization factors platform will also help to reduce pollution, obtrusive light, and sky glow. For the specific areas, tasks, and activities requirements are given in terms of average maintained illuminances, uniformities, glare rating limits, and colour eco smart eficacitate pass indices.

For open platforms e.

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In addition special attention has to be paid to the edge of the platform and to the avoidance of glare for train drivers. The listed minimum values of illuminance, uniformity and diversity [1] are a kind of harmonized average values reflecting current European practice.

The dependence of the lighting requirements on the type of train or service and passenger volume gives great flexibility and allows e. As the recommended illuminances for the tasks are given as maintained illuminances the design should take into account an appropriate maintenance factor. The maintenance factor to be applied depends on the characteristics of the lamp and control gear, the luminaire, the environment, and on the maintenance programme.

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