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Designing the Constanta Corpus: from tape to print 1. First-generation corpora such the Brown Corpus in the s include one million words.

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Since then, corpora have continued to grow massively. Nowadays they can be measured in hundreds of millions of words.

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While large corpora are essential when examining relatively infrequent words and the generality of its lexical use Coxheadsmaller corpora can also yield relevant results depending on the aims of the research. Biberfor example, shows how samples as small as 1, words are large enough to provide reliable results when focusing on grammatical items such as pronouns or tense.

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Spoken corpora are usually smaller than written corpora due to various difficulties ranging from issues related to data collection to the time constraints of recording and transcribing the naturally- occurring conversation McCarthy The Constanta Corpus explored in this book is a small 90, corpus, of which a section of approximately 33, words is transcribed in Chapter 2.

Comprising ten hours of both mixed and same-sex interactions, the Constanta Corpus is part of my research project concerned with exploring the speaking practices of Romanian women and men in both formal and informal settings. Such small scale studies allow us, instead, to investigate in much more depth linguistic variation in relation to such sociological variables as gender, age, social class, leading to well- grounded research questions and methodologies that can be used in subsequent large scale slimming fusta pattern Hamilton When present, I took part naturally in the conversations and this minimized any disruption or influence.

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Thirdly, there were volunteers to take charge of the recorder and record their own conversations. I have chosen to interview best friends because I hold the view that the closest we can come to getting natural speech in an interview situation is by interviewing groups of peer. This type of interview is the context most conducive to obtaining casual speech since the normal patterns of group interaction can direct attention away from the tape recorder Spolsky The transcription of the Constanta Corpus turned out to be a complicated and very time-consuming process.

This was partly due to slimming fusta pattern poor quality of some of the recordings and partly to features characteristic of adolescent talk. An additional problem that made the transcription process even more time-consuming was the lack of a team involved in transcribing and editing, the entire amount of work being done by just one researcher. One might argue that this kind of transcription makes conversation look more like written dialogue than spontaneous speech.

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However, the fact that it does not hide such typical features of speech as ellipsis, repetition, new starts, and anaphora, and that it provides information in terms of pauses, intonational contours full stop for a fall, comma of a slight rise, question mark of questioning and exclamation mark for exclamatory utterances makes it acceptable for most research, unless it is aimed at phonology.

This does not mean that the version resulting from stage 2 is perfect, but it is more accurate and it contains more words that the version in stage 1. After the final check, the corpus had increased by nearly 20 per cent. Stage 3 In the third stage prosodic information was added applying the more detailed and narrower transcription conventions used in Conversation Analysis Ochs, Schegloff and Thompson The transcription conventions are given in Appendix 1.

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Thus, items such as turn placement, pitch, intonation and rhythm, overlapping talk, latching, vowel lengthening, false starts have been captured by CA transcribing convections since are important in terms of their communicative information Brazil ; Gumperz Once transcribed, the data were saved as text files which allowed them then to be manipulated by corpus software tools. When informants agree to take part in a sociolinguistic interview, they are usually told that no one but the researchers will ever have access to their interview and they are guaranteed complete anonymity.

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Sociolinguists go to great lengths to ensure that this confidentiality is maintained. This is why sociolinguistic corpora are usually private. Access is restricted depending on what the original ethics agreement stipulated. Practices vary across sociolinguists in terms of their ongoing relationship with the communities they study. Some researchers continue to do fieldwork in the same community for many years2.

Moreover, family, friends, children, and spouses of slimming fusta pattern are often among the informants too, and obviously — although this is rarely noted — so are the sociolinguists. On completion of the audio recordings, the informants in the Constanta Corpus were required to provide some personal details: age, gender, birthplace, current area of residence, occupation and level slimming fusta pattern education.

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In order to maintain ethical research standards, all participants were informed of the process prior to the commencement of the recording. Additionally, they were provided with an information leaflet which took the form of a written guarantee regarding issues of confidentiality anonymity of transcripts and confidentiality of any personal details concerning any of the speakers.

Once the recordings were carried out, all participants were requested to complete speaker consent forms granting permission to use the data in the recording. Once permission had been received for all the recordings to be used, the data were transcribed.

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Norwich Trudgill aBuckie e. Smith et al.

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In return for guarantees of anonymity and confidentiality, my informants trusted me with a wide range of fascinating material. The selection criteria were governed largely by my research interest slimming fusta pattern exploring and understanding gender-related linguistic variation in adolescent and adult talk.

The adolescent informants matched the following age groups: early adolescence 10—14 and late adolescence 15— The informants who took part in the corpus were mainly friends, friends of friends, family or acquaintances due to their interest in assisting with the project as well as the high level of trust they had in the fact that their recordings would be anonymised and that I, as the researcher, would be the only person to hear the conversations.

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The sample includes twenty-four informants3 twenty females and four maleswhose ages ranged from thirteen to sixty-four including ten adolescents, eight in their twenties, two in their thirties, three in their forties, and one in her sixties. As the research focus of the study was to examine naturally- occurring discourse, I chose a corpus-based approach as it seemed to best suit the methodological aim of the study unlike other methods such as standardized tests, interviews, talk shows, etc.

The Constanta corpus consists of ten hours of spontaneously occurring conversations with friends recorded in settings chosen by participants themselves and spontaneous interaction in offices and various service encounters.

Although the participants were not supposed to notice that they were being recorded, it is very obvious that they did more often 3 Gennerally, one should aim at a minimum of five informants for each social variable Hudson But this does not seem to have made them less spontaneous.

Awareness of being recorded seems to have encouraged the male speakers in particular to be slimming fusta pattern than ever by telling dirty jokes or indulging in the use of taboo words. I am satisfied that the material represents natural conversation and that there was no undue awareness of the recorder.

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The tapes sound natural. Some of my informants reported that they soon began to ignore the tape recorder. Moreover, they were apologetic about the material calling it trivial and uninteresting, just the ordinary affaires of everyday life. On completion of the audio recordings, the informants supplied information regarding their age, gender, birthplace, current area of residence, occupation and level of education.

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The corpus consists roughly of four 15, word corpora of naturally-occurring conversation collected for both males and females which gives a total word count of approximately 90, words. As an illustration of the way the corpus was designed, Chapter 2 includes representative samples of each slimming fusta pattern the four sub-corpora, amounting to approximately 30, words.

It is important to note that in the Constanta Corpus, the three factors which are of crucial importance in the compilation of corpora, as outlined by Tognini-Bonelli 54—63were adhered to. They include: - the authenticity of the texts included in the corpus slimming fusta pattern the representativeness of language included in the corpus - the sampling criteria used in the selection of the slimming fusta pattern Tognini-Bonelli 54—63 The Constanta Medicamente de slabit farmacie reflects slimming fusta pattern authenticity factor in that all the material included in the corpus is taken from spontaneous genuine conversations of people going about their normal business Aarts ; Johansson ; Tognini-Bonellicasual conversation with peers and conversational talk in service encounters in this particular case.

The corpus is also representative of the language as the findings based on its contents can be generalized to a larger hypothetical corpus.

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Various patterns and linguistic preferences identified within the Constanta Corpus are corroborated by the data 13 provided by CORV4 as a control sample.

As far as social variables are concerned, the primary focus of the corpus was gender and age. Linguistic variation under scrutiny was related to three life stages: slimming fusta pattern adulthood, mid-adulthood. In order to ensure representativeness of the sample, one should aim at a minimum of five informants for each social variable Hudson In gathering empirical data, one can profit from the advantages of one method while overcoming the limitations of another, and have, therefore, attempted to collect data from a variety of sources using various techniques for gathering relevant data.

Thus apart from naturally occurring conversations originating in two different corpora, I have also made use of questionnaires to obtain statistically analyzable data on language attitudes Appendix 2discussions with informants, reports from works on sociology Hudson The recordings were transcribed using the transcription conventions employed in conversation analysis see Appendix 1 including thus sufficient detail for a fine-grained qualitative analysis Ochs, Schegloff and Thompson As a result, the Constanta Corpus can be used to make observations of a quantitative nature.

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